Verbs in Gothic take endings for all three persons, whereas in English only the third person singular has its own ending: -s. Here is an example of the inflected endings of a Gothic verb, along with the personal pronouns they correspond to:
|Infinitive|| ||to sing|
|1st|| ||I sing|
|2nd|| ||Thou sing|
|3rd|| || He sings (feminine: |
|1st|| ||we sing|
|2nd|| ||you (pl.) sing|
|3rd|| || they (masculine) sing (feminine: |
In the first and second persons, Gothic also has a dual number:
|1st|| ||we two sing|
|2nd|| ||you two sing|
Sometimes, a word that should end in
As with most languages, the verb for "to be" is irregular:
|Infinitive|| ||to be|
|1st|| ||I am|
|2nd|| ||thou art|
|3rd|| || he is (|
|1st|| ||we two are|
|2nd|| ||you two are|
|1st|| ||we are|
|2nd|| ||you (pl.) are|
|3rd|| || they (masc.) are (fem. |
In written and spoken Gothic, it would be unusual to use the pronoun with the verb, except for emphasis. Still, it is easier to learn and memorize the different forms when they are put together like this.
The numbers from one to ten in Gothic are:
|1. ||The house has six doors. (Literally, to the house are six doors. In unit 12 we'll encounter another way to say this.)|
|2. ||I see the leaves of five trees.|
|3. ||You (thou) sow corn in a field.|
|4. ||The servants speak oaths to the king.|
|5. || We two are going along the way to the house. (Note |
See if you can translate these sentences into Gothic:
|6. Seven birds are eating fruits.|
|7. They see the door of the house.|
|8. This is the way to the servants' house.|
|9. You two are sowing in the daytime.|
|10. You (plural) are singing in the morning.|
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